Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis


Rosacea is a common skin disorder that typically occurs in adults. Rarely, rosacea occurs in children.


 The pathogenesis of rosacea is poorly understood. Factors such as abnormalities in the innate immune system, inflammatory reactions to cutaneous microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation exposure, vascular hyperreactivity, and genetics have been identified as potential contributing factors.

Clinical features

Persistent centrofacial redness, phymatous skin changes, papules, pustules, flushing, telangiectasia, burning or stinging sensations, cutaneous edema, and dryness are potential cutaneous manifestations of rosacea. Ocular abnormalities may also occur. 


In most patients, clinical assessment is sufficient for diagnosing rosacea and excluding other disorders that may resemble rosacea . Skin biopsies are rarely indicated but can be useful in cases in which another disorder with specific histopathologic findings is suspected or for supporting a diagnosis of granulomatous rosacea. 

The appearance of centrofacial erythema and telangiectasias may be subtle in patients with highly pigmented skin. Careful attention to other features of rosacea and techniques such as dermoscopy and diascopy may aid with diagnosis of rosacea in patients with highly pigmented skin.

Ocular involvement

Ocular involvement may present independently or in association with cutaneous manifestations of rosacea. Patients may exhibit features such as lid margin telangiectases, conjunctival injection, and ocular irritation. Patients with signs or symptoms of ocular rosacea should be referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation.

(بازدید 3 بار, بازدیدهای امروز 1 )

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