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Cholangitis

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Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)- Symptoms Causes

●Causes – Conjunctivitis may be infectious (bacterial or viral) or noninfectious (allergic, toxic, dryness, and others). Most infectious conjunctivitis is probably viral; bacterial conjunctivitis is more common in children than in adults.  ●Diagnosis – The diagnosis of conjunctivitis is made in a patient with a red eye and discharge only if the vision is normal […]

Acute Pancreatitis – Causes, Signs Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis

Clinical features – The majority of patients with acute pancreatitis have acute onset of severe upper abdominal pain. Patients may have associated nausea and vomiting. On physical examination, patients have abdominal tenderness to palpation. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis may have fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, and hypotension.    ●Laboratory findings – Early in the course of […]

Acute pancreatitis

Predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis ●Scoring systems – During the initial 24 hours, severe acute pancreatitis (AP) can be predicted using clinical, laboratory, and radiologic risk factors, many of which have been incorporated into scoring systems such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE) II […]

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

THERAPY ●Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis •Most patients do not require antibiotics – With some exceptions, antibiotic treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is NOT required because the course is usually self-limited. However, because topical antibiotics may shorten the clinical course, the choice of whether to use antibiotics for the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis is driven by patient preferences (for […]

What Happens During a Gout Attack

Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of gout ●Natural history and role of hyperuricemia – The three clinical stages in the natural history of progressive urate crystal deposition disease (gout) are the gout flare, intercritical (or interval) gout, and chronic gouty arthritis and tophaceous gout. Use of effective urate-lowering therapies has resulted in a reduced frequency of […]

TOP 5 TIPS TO CONTROL PSORIASIS FLARES DERMATOLOGIST

Treatment of psoriasis in adults ●Overview – Numerous topical and systemic therapies are available for the treatment of psoriasis. Treatment modalities are chosen on the basis of disease severity, relevant comorbidities, patient preference (including cost and convenience), efficacy, and evaluation of individual patient response. ●Psychosocial aspects – Psoriasis can have negative psychosocial effects. Clinicians should address the […]

Understanding Psoriasis

Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis Overview – Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that has also been identified as a multisystem inflammatory disorder associated with multiple comorbidities. ●Epidemiology – Psoriasis affects males and females equally. Psoriasis can begin at any age; however, onset during adulthood is most frequent.  ●Pathophysiology – Psoriasis is a complex immune-mediated disease. […]

Psoriasis

Pathophysiology of plaque psoriasis ●Psoriasis is a complex immune-mediated disorder that presents as inflammatory plaques in the skin. Dysregulation or alteration of components of the innate and adaptive immune systems, keratinocyte function, and vascular structure contribute to the manifestations of this disease. ●Plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells are key contributors to development of inflammation in […]

Is There A Cure for Herpes?

Treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infection ●Causative agent – Genital herpes simplex is a common sexually transmitted virus infection that is found worldwide. Most of these genital infections are caused by herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), but herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) also produces a clinically similar disease, and the incidence of HSV-1 genital disease is […]

Herpes Simplex Virus and Herpes Zoster Shingles- Integumentary System

Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection ●Epidemiology – Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection occurs worldwide. Infection occurs equally between the sexes and without seasonal variation. The prevalence is highest in low- and middle-income countries, whereas the prevalence rate in high-income countries has been declining. ●Transmission – Transmission of […]

HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Nursing Interventions, Causes, Types

Prevention of genital herpes virus infections ●Prevention of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections can avert significant morbidity associated with primary infection and the ongoing discomfort and psychological distress that may occur with recurrences.  ●Counseling at the time of diagnosis of HSV infection is important to educate the patient regarding the high probability […]

Gout- Everything You Need to Know

Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of gout ●Natural history and role of hyperuricemia – The three clinical stages in the natural history of progressive urate crystal deposition disease (gout) are the gout flare, intercritical (or interval) gout, and chronic gouty arthritis and tophaceous gout. Use of effective urate-lowering therapies has resulted in a reduced frequency of […]

Gut Microbiome Explained in Simple Words

intestinal microbiota in health and disease ●The surface of the intestinal tract in healthy individuals is free of bacteria in all bowel segments. Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is thus a sign of infection. By contrast, the intestinal lumen is never sterile. ●The occurrence, composition, and organization of intestinal microbiota in each gut segment […]

Herpes (oral genital) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Prevention of genital herpes virus infections ●Prevention of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections can avert significant morbidity associated with primary infection and the ongoing discomfort and psychological distress that may occur with recurrences.  ●Counseling at the time of diagnosis of HSV infection is important to educate the patient regarding the high probability […]

Gout

INTRODUCTION Gout (monosodium urate [MSU] crystal deposition disease) is characterized biochemically by extracellular fluid urate saturation, which is reflected in the blood by hyperuricemia, with serum or plasma urate concentrations exceeding 6.8 mg/dL (approximately 400 micromol/L); this level of urate is the approximate limit of urate solubile The clinical manifestations of gout may include: ●Recurrent […]

Gout

TREATMENT OF COMORBIDITIES Weight reduction towards ideal body weight and moderation in ethanol consumption have each been convincingly shown to reduce both the risk of incident gout and the expression of established gout. Other comorbidities have also been the subject of study. Hyperuricemia and gout are frequently accompanied by one or more major disorders, such as […]

Gout – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

LABORATORY FINDINGS Synovial fluid analysis  The gout flare is characterized by the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in synovial fluid obtained from joints or bursas visualized by direct examination of a sample of fluid using compensated polarized light microscop. Urate crystals may also be identified frequently by this technique in material aspirated during the […]

Corona virus – covid 19

clinical presentation and natural history of COVID-19 he spectrum of illness associated with COVID-19 is wide, ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening respiratory failure. When symptoms are present, they typically arise three to five days after exposure. Most symptomatic infections are mild. Nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, cough, myalgias, and headache are the most commonly […]

Alzheimer

Epidemiology, pathology, and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease ●Hallmark neuropathologic features – Neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer disease (AD) include neuritic plaques, extracellular deposits of amyloid beta, and neurofibrillary degeneration. ●Pathogenesis – While the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, all forms of AD appear to share overproduction and/or decreased clearance of a family of proteins known as […]

The effect of smoking on health

Control of secondhand smoke exposure ●Epidemiology – Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is declining in the United States, but approximately 40 percent of children have biochemical evidence of SHS exposure. There are persistent disparities in the levels of exposures.  ●Health effects •Combustible tobacco – Established health effects of SHS in children include prematurity and perinatal […]

Genital herpes- Treatment Management – Stanford Center for Health Education

Treatment of genital herpes simplex virus infection ●Causative agent – Genital herpes simplex is a common sexually transmitted virus infection that is found worldwide. Most of these genital infections are caused by herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), but herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) also produces a clinically similar disease, and the incidence of HSV-1 genital disease is […]

Busting 5 Myths About Genital Herpes

Genital herpes simplex virus infection and pregnancy   ●During pregnancy, the major complication of maternal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transmission to the newborn, as neonatal infection can result in serious morbidity and mortality. ●The classification of genital HSV infection includes: primary, nonprimary first-episode genital, and recurrent infection. Clinical findings of HSV infection are […]
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